Bodyclocks Cover1

2015 - Articles

BODY CLOCKS, LIGHT, SLEEP AND HEALTH

Speakers

by Russell G. Foster | illustrations by Ulrika Nilsson Carlsson

 

 

Over the last one and a half centuries, artificial light and the restructuring of working times have seemingly ‘liberated’ us from the diurnal cycles of light and dark that nature imparts on us. Yet recent research has shown that this separation from nature comes at a considerable cost, causing health and social problems. A reconnection to the rhythms of nature is therefore needed – and this will also have a profound influence on architecture.

 

Our lives are ruled by time and we use time to tell us what to do. But the digital alarm clock that wakes us in the morning or the wrist-watch that tells us we are late for supper are unnatural clocks. Our biology answers to a profoundly more ancient beat that probably started to tick early in the evolution of all life. Embedded within our genes, and almost all life on earth, are the instructions for a biological clock that marks the passage of approximately 24 hours. Biological clocks or ‘circadian clocks’ (circa about, diem a day) help time our sleep patterns, alertness, mood, physical strength, blood pressure and much more. Under normal conditions we experience a 24-hour pattern of light and dark, and our circadian clock uses this signal to align biological time to the day and night. The clock is then used to anticipate the differing demands of the 24-hour day and fine-tune physiology and behaviour in advance of the changing conditions. Body temperature drops, blood pressure decreases, cognitive performance drops and tiredness increases in anticipation of going to bed. Whilst before dawn, metabolism is geared-up in anticipation of increased activity when we wake.

 

Few of us appreciate this internal world, seduced by an apparent freedom to sleep, work, eat, drink, or travel when we want. But this freedom is an illusion; in reality we are not free to act independently of the biological order that the circadian clock imparts. We are unable to perform with the same efficiency throughout the 24h day. Life has evolved on a planet that experiences profound changes in light over the 24h day and our biology anticipates these changes and needs to be exposed to the natural pattern of light and dark to function properly. Yet we detach ourselves from the environment by forcing our nights into days using electric light, and isolate ourselves in buildings that shield us from natural light. This short review considers some of the important consequences of our increasing detachment from the sun.

 

 

THE DAY WITHIN

 

At the base of the brain, in a structure known as the anterior hypothalamus, is a cluster of about 50,000 neurones known as the suprachiasmatic nuclei or SCN. If this region is destroyed as a result of a stroke or tumour, then 24h rhythmicity is lost and physiology becomes randomly distributed across the day. The finding that individual SCN neurones, isolated from all other cells, show near 24-hour rhythms in electrical activity demonstrated that the basic mechanisms that generate this internal day must be part of a sub-cellular molecular mechanism. To date, approximately 14-20 genes and their protein products have been linked to the generation of circadian rhythms. At the heart of the molecular clock is a negative feedback loop that consists of the following sequence of events: the clock genes are transcribed and the messenger RNAs (mRNAs) move to the cytoplasm of the cell and are translated into proteins; The proteins interact to form complexes and then move from the cytoplasm into the nucleus and inhibit the transcription of their own genes; the inhibitory clock protein complexes are then degraded and the core clock genes are once more free to make their mRNA and hence fresh protein. This negative feedback loop generates a near 24-hour rhythm of protein production and degradation that encodes the biological day.

 

The original assumption was that SCN neurones collectively drive or impose a 24h rhythm on physiology and behaviour. However, the discovery that isolated cells from almost any organ of the body produce clock genes/proteins in a circadian pattern led to a major shift in our understanding. We now appreciate that the SCN acts as a master pacemaker, coordinating the activity of all cellular clocks in a manner that has been likened to the conductor of an orchestra, regulating the timing of the multiple and varied components of the ensemble. In the absence of the SCN, the individual cellular clocks of the organ systems drift apart and coordinated circadian rhythms collapse – a state known as internal desynchronisation. Internal desynchronisation is the main reason why we feel so awful as a result of jet lag. All the different organ systems, the brain, liver, gut, muscles etc., are working at a slightly different time. Only when internal time has been re-aligned can we function normally once more.

 

 

OUR BODY CLOCKS ARE DIFFERENT – GENES AND HORMONES?

 

Our body clocks are not all the same. If you are alert in the mornings and go to bed early you are a ‘lark’, but if you hate mornings and want to keep going through the night, then you are an ’owl’.

 

These terms have been used to describe the real phenomenon of diurnal preference – the times when you prefer to sleep and when you do your best work. Diurnal preference is determined partly by our clock genes. Exciting research in recent years has shown that small changes in these genes have been linked to the fast clocks (shorter than 24h) of larks or slower clocks (longer than 24h) of owls. But it is not just our genes that regulate our diurnal preference. Sleep timing changes markedly as we age. By the time of puberty, bed times and wake times drift to later and later hours. This tendency to get up later continues until about the age of 19.5 years in women and 21 years in men. At this point there is a reversal and a drift towards earlier sleep and wake times. By the age of 55–60 we are getting up as early as we did when we were 10. These and allied results demonstrate that young adults really do have a problem getting up in the morning. Teenagers show both delayed sleep and high levels of sleep deprivation, because they are going to bed late but still having to get up early in the morning to go to school. These real biological effects have been largely ignored in terms of the time structure imposed upon teenagers at school. Of the few studies undertaken, later starting times for schools have been shown to improve alertness and the mental abilities of students during their morning lessons. Ironically, whilst young adults tend to improve their performance across the day, their older teachers show a decline in performance over the same period! The mechanisms for this change in diurnal preference remain poorly understood, but are thought to relate to the marked changes in our steroid hormones (e.g. testosterone, oestrogen, progesterone) and their rapid rise during puberty and subsequent slower decline.

 

 

LIGHT CLOCKS AND ALERTNESS

 

A clock is not a clock unless it can be set to local time – and the molecular clocks within the SCN are normally adjusted (entrained) by daily exposure to light around dawn and dusk detected by the eyes. Failure to expose the clock to a stable light/dark cycle results in drifting or ‘free-running’ circadian rhythms or disrupted cycles. Detachment from solar day is common in industrialised societies and the special case of shift workers will be discussed below; however isolation from robust dawn and dusk signals occurs in many different instances. For example, paediatric and adult intensive care units frequently utilise low and constant light. In such an environment circadian rhythms would be expected to drift and become desynchronised. The result, as discussed below in the sub-section ’Disrupting the clock’, will be a weakened health status of the patient. Light does more than regulate the timing of circadian rhythms – it also has a direct effect on alertness and performance. Brain imaging following light exposure shows increased activity in many of the brain areas involved in alertness, cognition and memory (thalamus, hippocampus, brainstem) and mood (amygdala). Furthermore, increased light has been shown to improve concentration, the ability to perform cognitive tasks and to reduce sleepiness. As a result, inappropriate light exposure in a building will not only disrupt sleep and circadian timing but also levels of alertness and performance. We will return to this topic below.

 

Our understanding of how light regulates circadian rhythms and alertness has been advanced dramatically over the past few years with the discovery of an entirely new photoreceptor system in the eye. This novel photoreceptor is not located in the part of the eye containing the rods (night vision) and cones (day vision) that are used to generate an image of the world, but in the ganglion cells that form the optic nerve. Most ganglion cells form a functional connection between the eye and the brain, but a small number of specialised ganglion cells (1–3%) are directly light-sensitive and project to those parts of the brain involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms, sleep, alertness, memory and mood. These photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGCs) contain a light-sensitive pigment called Opn4, which is most sensitive in the blue part of the spectrum with a peak sensitivity at 480 nm – very similar to the ‘blue’ of a clear blue sky. This light-detection system has evolved to be anatomically and functionally independent of the visual system, and probably evolved before vision as the main way to detect light for entraining daily rhythms. Remarkably, the pRGCs can still detect light to shift the circadian clock or affect alertness even in animals or people where the rods and cones used for vision are completely destroyed and who are otherwise totally visually blind. This raises important implications for ophthalmologists who are largely unaware of this new photoreceptor system and its impact on human physiology.

 

“Of the few studies undertaken, later starting times for schools have been shown to improve alertness and the mental abilities of students during their morning lessons. Ironically, whilst young adults tend to improve their performance across the day, their older teachers show a decline in performance over the same period!”

 

In view of the colour sensitivity of Opn4, we would predict that blue light should be the most effective wavelength (colour) for shifting circadian rhythms and alerting the arousal systems. In all studies undertaken to-date, this has been shown to be the case. Blue light exposure at night is most effective at shifting the timing of the circadian clock, reducing sleepiness, improving reaction times and activating areas of the brain mediating alertness and sleep. In addition to its spectrum, light timing, duration, pattern and history all interact to influence circadian rhythms and alertness. Light timing is particularly important. Light can eitheradvance (go to bed earlier) or delay (go to bed later) the circadian system depending on the timing of exposure. Under conditions of solar light exposure, light around dusk causes a delay of the clock, whereas light exposure around dawn will advance the clock. This delaying and advancing effect of light keeps the SCN locked onto to the solar day. Such differential effects of light become vitally important when trying to understand the impact of jet lag, shift work (see below), or building design on sleep/wake timing.

 

The pRGCs are not as sensitive to light as the rods and cones, so that short light exposure that is easily detected by the visual system is not recognised by the pRGCs. However, dim light can have an effect if it is delivered over long periods of time. Thus relatively dim indoor room light from bedside lamps and computer screens (less than 100 lux) can have measureable effects on the clock and arousal systems over several hours, and may exacerbate sleep disorders. Collectively, these effects of light – spectral composition, time of exposure and brightness – have widespread clinical and occupational applications in not only treating sleep disorders and fatigue but in the architecture of hospitals, schools, offices, retail space and domestic buildings.

 

 

DISRUPTING THE CLOCK – SHIFT WORK AND 24/7

 

The introduction of electricity and artificial light in the 19th century and the restructuring of work times have progressively detached us from the solar 24-hour cycles of light and dark. The consequence has been disruption of the circadian and sleep systems. Much has been written about the effects of this disruption, and in general terms the effects are clear (Table 1). Sleep and circadian rhythm disruption results in performance deficits that include increased errors, poor vigilance, poor memory, reduced mental and physical reaction times and reduced motivation. Sleep deprivation and disruption are also associated with a range of metabolic abnormalities, including the glucose/insulin axis. For example, sleep disrupted individuals take longer to regulate blood-glucose levels and insulin can fall to levels seen in the early stages of diabetes — abnormalities that can be reversed by normal sleep. Such results have suggested that long-term sleep and circadian rhythm disruption might contribute to chronic conditions such as diabetes, obesity and hypertension. Furthermore, obesity is strongly correlated with sleep apnoea and hence additional sleep disturbance. Under these circumstances a dangerous positive feedback loop of obesity and sleep disturbance can often result.

 

Sleep loss and circadian rhythm disruption are most obvious in night-shift workers. More than 20% of the population of employment age work at least some of the time outside the 07.00–19.00 day.

 

Josephine Arendt at the University of Surrey makes the point: “Because of their rapidly changing and conflicting lightdark exposure and activity-rest behaviour, shift workers can have symptoms similar to those of jet lag. Although travellers normally adapt to the new time zone, shiftworkers usually live out of phase with local time cues”. Even after 20 years of nightshift work, individuals will not normally shift their circadian rhythms in response to the demands of working at night. Despite the great variety and complexity of ‘shift systems’, none have been able to alleviate fully the circadian problems associated with shift work. Metabolism, along with alertness and performance, are still high during the day when the night-shift worker is trying to sleep and low at night when the individual is trying to work. A misaligned physiology, along with poor sleep, in night-shift workers has been associated with increased cardiovascular mortality, an eight-fold higher incidence of peptic ulcers, and a higher risk of some forms of cancer. Other problems include a greater risk of accidents, chronic fatigue, excessive sleepiness, difficulty sleeping and higher rates of substance abuse and depression. Night-shift workers are also much more likely to view their jobs as extremely stressful.

 

So why don’t shift-workers shift their clocks? After all, if we travel across multiple time zones we do recover from jet lag and entrain to local time. The answer seems to be that the pRGCs that entrain the circadian system are fairly insensitive to light. The clock always responds to bright natural sunlight in preference to the dim artificial light commonly found in the workplace. It is not obvious but shortly after dawn, natural light is some 50 times brighter than normal office lighting (300–500 lux), and at noon natural light can be 500 to 1,000 times brighter – even in Northern Europe. Thus exposure to strong natural light on the journey to and from work, combined with low levels of light in the workplace, entrains the night-shift worker onto local time. In this way biological and social time are persistently misaligned in night-shift workers. In the absence of any natural light, however, the clock will eventually respond to man-made light. Theoretically this information could be used to develop practical countermeasures to the problems of working at night. However, most nightshift workers prefer not to be adapted to a reversed sleep-wake cycle as they like to spend their work-free time with family and friends at maximum alertness. One suggestion has been to select individuals preference – ‘owls’ have naturally better alertness at later hours and make better night-shift workers, while ‘larks’ are usually better at adapting to early morning shifts.

 

There is increasing evidence of a complex and important interaction between circadian rhythm/sleep disruption and the immune system. Rats deprived of sleep readily die of septicaemia, and in humans the activity of natural killer cells can be lowered by as much as 28% after only one night without sleep. Sleep disruption also alters many other aspects of the immune system including circulating immune complexes, secondary antibody responses, and antigen uptake. Cortisol provides an important link between the immune system, sleep and psychological stress. Sleep disruption and sustained psychological stress increase cortisol levels in the blood. Indeed, one lost night of sleep can raise cortisol by nearly 50% on the following evening. High levels of cortisol act to suppress the immune system, so excessively tired people are more likely to acquire an infection. In this context, night-shift workers are at a higher risk of certain types of cancer and there has been considerable speculation as to the cause. In view of the considerable physiological stress and sleep loss associated with night-shift work, immune impairment could provide a mechanistic link with the increased risk of cancers in night-shift workers.

 

 

CONCLUSIONS AND PERSPECTIVES

 

The discussion in this article has considered both the biology of internal time and some of the general problems we face if we ignore the role of sleep and circadian timing in our lives. It is now clear that poor sleep, mood changes, decreased cognitive performance, reduced communication skills and a higher risk of disease can arise from the demands of a 24/7 society. One of the consequences of this impairment of brain function is the reliance by large sections of society on day-time stimulants and night-time sedatives to replace the order normally imposed by the circadian system. Shift-work is perhaps the most extreme example, but we should not ignore the fact that many of our children in schools, healthcare professionals in hospitals, and manufacturing and business workforces are isolated from natural light. This will not only increase their likelihood of circadian rhythm and sleep disturbance but also have a significant impact upon their cognition, mood and sense of well-being. We are a species that has evolved under bright light conditions – even on an overcast day in Europe, natural light is around 10,000 lux, and may be as high as 100,000 lux on bright sunny days. Yet we live in homes and work in offices, factories, schools and hospitals that are often isolated from natural light and where artificial light is often around 200 lux and seldom exceeds 400–500 lux. We live our lives in dim caves. Modern architectural design has the opportunity, by letting light into our lives, to liberate humanity from the gloom and allowing our bodies to use the natural pattern of light and dark to optimise our biology.

 

Russell Foster is Professor of Circadian Neuroscience and the Head of Department of Ophthalmology at Oxford University. Russell Foster’s research spans basic and applied circadian and photoreceptor biology. For his discovery of nonrod, non-cone ocular photoreceptors, he has been awarded numerous prizes, including the Honma prize (Japan), Cogan Award (USA) and Zoological Society Scientific & Edride-Green Medals (UK). He is co-author of Rhythms of Life and Seasons of Life, popular science books on biological rhythms. In 2008, he was elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society.

 

This article is featured in D/A Magazine issue 15, more information on DA.VELUX.com.

 

 

Further reading

 

Foster, R.G. & Kreitzman, L. (2004) Rhythms of Life: The biological clocks that control the daily lives of every living thing. Profile Books, London.

 

Foster, R.G. & Wulff, K. (2005) The rhythm of rest and excess. Nat Rev Neurosci, 6, 407–414.

 

Foster, R.G. & Hankins, M.W. (2007) Circadian vision. Curr Biol, 17, R746–751.

 

Rajaratnam, S.M. & Arendt, J. (2001) Health in a 24-h society. Lancet, 358, 999–1005.

 

Zaidi, F.H., Hull, J.T., Peirson, S.N., Wulff, K., Aeschbach, D., Gooley, J.J., Brainard, G.C., Gregory-Evans, K., Rizzo III, J.F., Czeisler, C.A., Foster, R.G., Moseley, M.J. & Lockley, S.W. (2007) Short-wavelength light sensitivity of circadian, pupillary and visual awareness in humans lacking an outer retina. Curr Biol, 17, 2122–2128.

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Daylight 2011 Peterboyce

2011 - Daylight Symposium

LEMMINGS, LIGHT AND HEALTH REVISITED by Peter Boyce

Screenshot 20221116 154543

2019 - Daylight Symposium

"On-site measurement of daylight autonomy : tools and methodology" by T. Severin-Fabiani, Y. Sutter

Article1 Web

2017 - Articles

DAYLIGHT DEFICIT IN MODERN SOCIETIES

Daylight 2007 Hemmafasch

2007 - Daylight Symposium

SPECIAL SCHOOL FOR DISABLED CHILDREN, SONDESCHULE SCHWECHAT, AUSTRIA by Hemma Fasch

Screenshot 20221115 131635

2013 - Daylight Symposium

Epigenetics & and the built environment - Deborah Burnett

Daylight 2009 Stevemwlockley

2009 - Daylight Symposium

CIRCADIAN PHOTORECEPTION: MORE THAN MEETS THE EYE by Steven W. Lockley

Margrethe Odgaard On Quality

2021 - Compass Stage

Pecha KuchaQuality

Margrethe Odgaard on Quality | Pecha Kucha

Screenshot 20221115 130845

2019 - Daylight Symposium

The Benefits of Windows - Martine Knoop

Bagsvaerd Kirke Loftshvaelv

2015 - Articles

NORDIC LIGHT

Arlind Dervishaj On Computational Design (New)

2021 - Daylight Symposium

Computational Design

Arlind Dervishaj on Computational Design

Unesco (1)

2017 - Articles

UNESCO PROCLAIMS MAY 16TH AS THE INTERNATIONAL DAY OF LIGHT

Chris Precht On Daylight In Architecture (Europe) Youtube

2021 - Daylight Symposium

Daylight in Architecture

Chris Precht on Daylight in Architecture (Europe)

Maria Tds640

2017 - Articles

LIGHT-DRIVEN MODEL FOR IDENTIFYING INDICATORS OF NON-VISUAL HEALTH POTENTIAL IN THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT

Daylight 2011 Sylviahubalek

2011 - Daylight Symposium

OFFICE WORKERS’ DAILY EXPOSURE TO LIGHT AND ITS INFLUENCE ON SLEEP QUALITY AND MOOD by Sylvia Hubalek

Screenshot 20221116 152541

2019 - Daylight Symposium

"Urban Daylight Signature" by Giulio Antonutto & Santiago Torres

Thekla Ehling FA 6401

2015 - Articles

D/A – DESIGN WITH SUNLIGHT FIRST

Tina Mayn, Velux Innovation (1080P).00 36 42 08.Still005

2021 - Compass Stage

Health

Lidia Morawska on Health

John Mardaljevic On Computational Design2

2021 - Daylight Symposium

Computational Design

John Mardaljevic on Computational Design

Li Hu On Daylight In Architecture (Asia)

2021 - Daylight Symposium

Daylight in Architecture

Li Hu on Daylight in Architecture (Asia)

Screenshot 20221116 145306

2019 - Daylight Symposium

"Visual Delight - The Importance of Views in the Workplace" by Lisa Heschong

MA 1280 E1491910490538

2017 - Articles

7th VELUX DAYLIGHT SYMPOSIUM OFFICIAL PROGRAMME

Screenshot 20221121 114916

2015 - Articles

REGISTRATION NOW OPEN FOR 6TH VELUX DAYLIGHT SYMPOSIUM IN LONDON ON 2-3 SEPTEMBER 2015

John Mardaljevic, Alejandro Pacheco Diéguez, Marie Claude Dubois, Arlind Dervishaj &Amp; Cosmin Ticleanu On Computational Design (New)

2021 - Daylight Symposium

Computational Design

John Mardaljevic, Alejandro Pacheco Diéguez, Marie-Claude Dubois, Arlind Dervishaj & Cosmin Ticleanu on Computational Design

Michael Ambjørn On Quality

2021 - Compass Stage

Pecha KuchaQuality

Michael Ambjørn on Quality | Pecha Kucha

Screenshot 20221117 100935

2019 - Daylight Symposium

"Radiance – the Interaction of Light and Matter in Building Simulations" by Greg Ward

Screenshot 20221116 124630

2017 - Daylight Symposium

“Daylight research from knowledge to practice: The tortoise and the guerrilla” by John Mardaljevic

Screenshot 20221115 162546

2015 - Daylight Symposium

Koen Steemers at the 6th VELUX Daylight Symposium

Screenshot 20221116 132154

2017 - Daylight Symposium

"The future is light" by Per Arnold Andersen

2015 - Articles

New CIBSE Lighting Guide 10: Daylighting – A Guide for Designers: Lighting for the Built Environment

Sneha Jain, Eleonora Brembilla And Christian Humann On Glare And Control

2021 - Daylight Symposium

Glare and Control

Sneha Jain, Eleonora Brembilla and Christian Humann on Glare and Control

Christian Humann On Glare And Control

2021 - Daylight Symposium

Glare and Control

Christian Humann on Glare and Control

Carla Cammilla Hjort 500X500

2019 - Healthy Buildings Day

"Future Living" by Carla Cammilla Hjort

Daylight 2009 Pieterrimdekroon

2009 - Daylight Symposium

DUTCH LIGHT – THE MOVIE by Pieter-Rim de Kroon

Tina Mayn, Velux Innovation (1080P).00 37 17 10.Still001

2021 - Compass Stage

VELUX

Tina Mayn, VELUX innovation

Screenshot 20221116 145950

2019 - Daylight Symposium

"Can Natural Lighting Shape Architecture?" by Sebastian Moreno Vacca & Aline Branders

Presenting The Lamp 5

2015 - Articles

WINNER ANNOUNCEMENT: NATURAL LIGHT INTERNATIONAL DESIGN COMPETITION

Daylight 2009 Marcfontoynont

2009 - Daylight Symposium

LONG TERM ASSESSMENT OF COSTS ASSOCIATED WITH LIGHTING AND DAYLIGHTING TECHNIQUES by Marc Fontoynont

Ingrid Reumert 500X500

2019 - Healthy Buildings Day

"Healthy Homes Barometer 2019 & Political Framing" by Marjolaine Meynier-Millefert & Ingrid Reumert

Kevin Van Den Wymelenberg On Pandemics (New)

2021 - Daylight Symposium

Pandemics

Kevin Van Den Wymelenberg on Pandemics

2015 - Articles

First International Workshop on Future Light Technology and Human Health

Zakaria Djebbara On Health (1080P).00 44 23 05.Still002

2021 - Compass Stage

Health

Marco Imperadori and Lasse Lind on Health

Stephen Wasilewski On Computational Design

2021 - Daylight Symposium

Computational Design

Stephen Wasilewski on Computational Design

Screenshot 20221116 143820

2017 - Daylight Symposium

“Daylighting and the senses: tactile design processes fostering biophilia” by Claude Demers

Daylight 2007 Jamesbenya

2007 - Daylight Symposium

DAYLIGHT + SCHOOLS = HEALTH + LEARNING + SUSTAINABILITY by James Benya

Session 6 Computational Design French.00 19 17 05.Still003

2021 - Daylight Symposium

Glare and Control

Sneha Jain on Glare and Control

Daylight 2011 Annekathrinefrandsen

2011 - Daylight Symposium

THE HEALING POTENTIAL OF DAYLIGHT IN HOSPITAL SETTINGS by Anne Kathrine Frandsen

Screenshot 20221116 131827

2017 - Daylight Symposium

“Is daylight enough? Taking a holistic, human perspective” by Peter Barrett

Jakob Brandtberg Knudsen And Seda Kacel On Health (New)

2021 - Compass Stage

Health

Jakob Brandtberg Knudsen and Seda Kacel on Health

Keith Riddle, Wrap Up And Thank You (New)

2021 - Compass Stage

VELUX

Keith Riddle, Wrap up and Thank you

Florence Lam 640

2015 - Articles

A MUSEUM OF DAYLIGHT – THE NEW ACROPOLIS MUSEUM IN ATHENS

Analysis Of Living Places By OCULIGHT Dynamics, Professor Marilyne Andersen

2024 - Video

Analysis of Living Places by OCULIGHT Dynamics, Professor Marilyne Andersen

Site BOS8855 L

2015 - Articles

CALL FOR PAPERS 6TH VELUX DAYLIGHT SYMPOSIUM 2-3 SEPTEMBER 2015

Screenshot 20221115 161945

2015 - Daylight Symposium

Lonn Combs at the 6th VELUX Daylight Symposium

Frame 1 Knowledge Carousel 220914

Explore the knowledge - Sign up for more

Screenshot 20221116 145402

2019 - Daylight Symposium

"The Rise of Human Centric Lighting" by Kevin Houser

Screenshot 20221116 133853

2017 - Daylight Symposium

“Healthy and sustainable buildings with daylight and fresh air” by Johannes Schwörer

Daylight Research Post2

2015 - Articles

GET FURTHER INSIGHTS INTO YOUR DAYLIGHT RESEARCH

Daylight 2011 Truusdebruinhordijk

2011 - Daylight Symposium

VISUAL COMFORT FOR SENIORS by Truus de Bruin-Hordijk

Joseph Allen On Health

2021 - Compass Stage

Health

What makes a building healthy? | Joseph Allen

Daylight 2009 Mohammedboubekri

2009 - Daylight Symposium

DAYLIGHTING LEGISLATION AND HEALTH by Mohamed Boubekri

Screenshot 20221116 140359

2017 - Daylight Symposium

"Sunlight as a source of indoor illumination, studies from high latitudes" by Barbara Matusiak

Screenshot 20221116 150739

2019 - Daylight Symposium

"Daylight and the Experience of Landscape" by Martin Schwartz

Natalia Sokol And Federica Giuliani On Daylight Education

2021 - Daylight Symposium

Daylight Education

Natalia Sokol and Federica Giuliani on Daylight Education

Much Untertrifaller On Flexible Pecha Kucha

2021 - Compass Stage

Pecha KuchaFlexible

Much Untertrifaller on Flexible | Pecha Kucha

TDS Infographics

2015 - Articles

TOWARDS AN IDENTIFICATION OF EUROPEAN INDOOR ENVIRONMENTS’ IMPACT ON HEALTH AND PERFORMANCE

Screenshot 20221117 095232

2019 - Daylight Symposium

"Designing Visually Accessible Spaces: Predicting Visibility" by Rob Shakespeare

LMU 640

2015 - Articles

CALL FOR ABSTRACTS EXTENDED FOR 3RD VELUX DAYLIGHT ACADEMIC FORUM

Sinus Lynge On Communities

2021 - Compass Stage

Communities

Investigating a new way of building | Sinus Lynge

Tds Post2906217

2017 - Articles

ENGAGEMENT AND KNOWLEDGE SHARING IN SCIENTIFIC FORUMS

Daylight 2007 Magilbodart

2007 - Daylight Symposium

DAYLIGHT IN EDUCATION by Magali Bodart

FRANZF~1.MP4.01 01 18 33.Still001

2021 - Daylight Symposium

Computational Design

Nicolaj Hostrup Langkjær and Love Berger-Vieweg on Computational Design

Daylight 2009 Marilyneandersen

2009 - Daylight Symposium

PROSPECTIVE DESIGN IMPLICATIONS OF RECENT FINDINGS IN PHOTOBIOLOGY by Marilyne Andersen

Ye Qing On Daylight In Architecture (Asia)
Daylight in Architecture

Ye Qing on Daylight in Architecture (Asia)

Daylight 2007 Janejhed

2007 - Daylight Symposium

DAYLIGHT + EDUCATION + TOOLS, INTRODUCTION by Jan Ejhed

Screenshot 20221116 150627

2019 - Daylight Symposium

“Skylight Illumination Design of Primary Education Building Space” by Song Yehao

Screenshot 20221116 124321

2017 - Daylight Symposium

"Superarchitecture: Daylight for Sustainability and Health" by Terri Peters

Group CHAPTER ONE With Subs

2023 - Articles

Hackathon

Chapter 1 - Build for Life Hackathon 2023

Screenshot 20221116 141733

2017 - Daylight Symposium

“Freedom of use” by Anne Lacaton

Mette Skjold On Environment
Environment

How do we design places for life – all life? | Mette Skjold

Screenshot 20221115 131306

2013 - Daylight Symposium

Designing cities for light - Koen Steemers

Group THERMAL DELIGHT With Subs

2023 - Articles

Hackathon

Thermal Delight - Build for Life Hackathon 2023

Nanna Dyrup Svane On Health

2021 - Compass Stage

Pecha KuchaHealth

Nanna Dyrup Svane on Health | Pecha Kucha

IMG 8340 640

2017 - Articles

4th VELUX DAYLIGHT ACADEMIC FORUM DEDICATED TO PhD STUDENTS WORKING WITH DAYLIGHT RESEARCH

Group BAREFOOT With Subs

2023 - Articles

Hackathon

Barefoot - Build for Life Hackathon 2023

Screenshot 20221117 101354

2019 - Daylight Symposium

"An Illustrated Address" by Thomas Vonier

Screenshot 20221116 140647

2017 - Daylight Symposium

"Parametric daylight facade optimization methodology" by Alejandro Dieguez

KS 03 640

2015 - Articles

ARCHITECTURE FOR WELL-BEING AND HEALTH

Screenshot 20221116 161101

2019 - Daylight Symposium

"Light, Architecture, and our Experience of Space" by Kynthia Chamilothori

Healthy Home Baro1

2015 - Articles

HEALTHY HOMES BAROMETER 2015

2015 - Articles

A CIBSE Daylight Group event: SLL Guide LG10 Daylighting – a guide for designers

Hugh Stewart On Quality

2021 - Compass Stage

QualityPecha Kucha

Hugh Stewart on Quality | Pecha Kucha

Daylight 2009 Johnmardaljevic

2009 - Daylight Symposium

CLIMATE-BASED DAYLIGHT ANALYSIS FOR RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS by John Mardaljevic

Harwil De Jonge, Marilyne Andersen And Rasmus Nørgaard On Affordability (New)

2021 - Compass Stage

Affordability

Harwil de Jonge, Marilyne Andersen and Rasmus Nørgaard on Affordability

Daylight 2011 Perarnoldandersen

2011 - Daylight Symposium

WELCOME TO THE 4TH SYMPOSIUM by Per Arnold Andersen

Daylight 2009 Paulkalkhoven

2009 - Daylight Symposium

DESIGNING WITH DAYLIGHT UNDER LARGE ROOFS by Paul Kalkhoven

Marcus Fairs, Kasper Guldager, Susanne Brorson And James Drinkwater On Environment 2 (2)

2021 - Compass Stage

Environment

Marcus Fairs, Kasper Guldager, Susanne Brorson and James Drinkwater on Environment

Group YOU With Subs

2023 - Articles

Hackathon

YOU - Build for Life Hackathon 2023

Helmut Stifter, Angelika Bachmann And Philipp Buxbaum On Flexible & Local

2021 - Compass Stage

FlexibleLocal

Helmut Stifter, Angelika Bachmann and Philipp Buxbaum on Flexible & Local

Carla Cammilla Hjort 500X500 (1)

2019 - Healthy Buildings Day

"The Big Why" by Carla Cammilla Hjort

Screenshot 20221116 125048

2017 - Daylight Symposium

“Using immersive virtual reality in lighting research and practice” by Kynthia Chamilothori

Screenshot 20221116 153015

2019 - Daylight Symposium

"An Explorative Study on Impact of Daylight and View among Operating Room Nurse" by Marielle Aarts

Friedl Decock 500X500

2019 - Healthy Buildings Day

"Renovactive Overview & Demonstration Results Part II: Replicability" by Friedl Decock

Screenshot 20221116 134212

2017 - Daylight Symposium

“En’Light’en: an exploration of light and sensation” by Laura Johnston

Daylight 2009 Johnmardaljevic2

2009 - Daylight Symposium

TOOLS AND METRICS by John Mardaljevic

Alejandro Pacheco Dieguez And Marie Claude Dubois On Computational Design (New)

2021 - Daylight Symposium

Computational Design

Alejandro Pacheco Dieguez and Marie Claude-Dubois on Computational Design

Screenshot 20221116 151933

2019 - Daylight Symposium

"Case Studies by cepezed and its Human Response to Daylight in Architecture" by Ronald Schleurholts

Per A. Andersen, H. Glogau, N. Mossin, N. Sokol, F. Giuliani And S. Fotios

2021 - Daylight Symposium

Daylight Education

Per Arnold Andersen, Henry Glogau, Natalie Mossin, Natalia Sokol, Federica Giuliani and Steve Fotios on Daylight Education

Daylight 2009 Rolfgerstlauer

2009 - Daylight Symposium

DAYLIGHT, SUSTAINABILITY AND HEALTH IN ARCHITECTURAL EDUCATION by Rolf Gerstlauer

Daylight 2007 Johnmardaljevic

2007 - Daylight Symposium

CLIMATE-BASED DAYLIGHT MODELLING FOR EVALUATION AND EDUCATION by John Mardaljevic

Screenshot 20221116 152716

2019 - Daylight Symposium

"Is Daylight Glare Perceived Differently by People from Different Cultures?" by Clotilde Pierson

Window Childrenroom 2 640

2015 - Articles

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF WINDOWS TO GERMANS A QUALITATIVE, ANTHROPOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE QUALITIES OF A WINDOW

Carpenter Presentation Page

2021 - Articles

9th VELUX DAYLIGHT SYMPOSIUM TO TAKE PLACE IN NOVEMBER 2021

Daylight 2007 Ingeborgschramm

2007 - Daylight Symposium

SONDERSCHULE SCHWECHAT – USER EVALUATION by Ingeborg Schramm

Lucile Sarran On Flexible

2021 - Compass Stage

Pecha KuchaFlexible

Lucile Sarran on Flexible | Pecha Kucha

Screenshot 20221116 154348

2019 - Daylight Symposium

"IEA Activities Towards Standartizations" by David Geisler-Moroder

Screenshot 20221115 161318

2015 - Daylight Symposium

6th VELUX Daylight Symposium 2015

Screenshot 20221116 135610

2017 - Daylight Symposium

"Establishing urban scale daylight assessment in the planning process" by Paul Rogers

Martin Haas On Communities

2021 - Compass Stage

Pecha KuchaCommunities

Martin Haas on Communities | Pecha Kucha

Daylight 2011 Jean Louis Scartezzini

2011 - Daylight Symposium

STATE OF THE UNION IN DAYLIGHTING AT EPFL by Jean-Louis Scartezzini

Volf

2015 - Articles

LIGHT, ARCHITECTURE AND HEALTH

Screenshot 20221115 162258

2015 - Daylight Symposium

David Nelson at the 6th VELUX Daylight Symposium

EH 640

2015 - Articles

EARTH HOUR ON SATURDAY 28 MARCH 2015 AT 20:30

Femke Beute On Contact To The Outdoors

2021 - Daylight Symposium

Contact to the Outdoors

Femke Beute on Contact to the Outdoors

Johan Lapere 500X500

2019 - Healthy Buildings Day

"Renovactive Replications in the BenHuur Projects" by Johan Lapere

Daylight 2007 Zackrogers

2007 - Daylight Symposium

OVERVIEW OF DAYLIGHT SIMULATION TOOLS (DIGITAL AND PHYSICAL METHODS) by Zack Rogers

Daylight 2011 Stevefotios

2011 - Daylight Symposium

HIGHLIGHTS FROM THE ACADEMIC FORUM by Steve Fotios

Sbi Lumenet

2017 - Articles

LUMENET 2018 – WORKSHOP FOR PHD STUDENTS IN COPENHAGEN 16-17 AUGUST

111950 01 XXL 640

2015 - Articles

PLENTY OF DAYLIGHT WITHOUT OVERHEATING

Paul Bogard 640

2015 - Articles

THE END OF NIGHT – A MUST WATCH LECTURE ON THE IMPORTANCE OF DARK SKIES

Screenshot 20221116 133327

2017 - Daylight Symposium

“Windows and roof tops for our well-being: their contribution to the value...” by Marc Fontoynont

BOS9935

2015 - Articles

84 PHOTOS FROM VELUX DAYLIGHT SYMPOSIUM IN LONDON

2011 - Daylight Symposium

EUROPEAN DAYLIGHT STANDARD by Peter Raynham

Screenshot 20221115 130451

2013 - Daylight Symposium

More daylight is needed to create sustainable buildings

Juri Troy On Quality

2021 - Compass Stage

Quality

Juri Troy on Quality

Anders Lonka On Quality

2021 - Compass Stage

Pecha KuchaQuality

Anders Lonka on Quality | Pecha Kucha

Screenshot 20221116 140105

2017 - Daylight Symposium

"Quantitative and qualitative assessment of visual comfort in offices" Laura Thuillier

Screenshot 20221116 141359

2017 - Daylight Symposium

"Virtual reality- getting in the zone" by Christoph Reinhart

Harwil De Jonge Resized

2019 - Healthy Buildings Day

"Future Living" by Harwil de Jonge​ from Heijmans Real Estate​

Marilyne Andersen On Health Pecha Kucha

2021 - Compass Stage

Pecha KuchaHealth

Marilyne Andersen on Health | Pecha Kucha

Screenshot 20221116 154234

2019 - Daylight Symposium

"Daylight Modeling and Simulation Standards" by Zack Rogers

Daylight 2009 Javierdelrio

2009 - Daylight Symposium

SOLAR HEAT VS. SOLAR LIGHT by Javier del Rio

Screenshot 20221116 152355

2019 - Daylight Symposium

"Daylight Amenity Impacts in the Growing City" by Phillip Greenup

Biorythm Workshop 640

2015 - Articles

CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS & BUILDING DESIGN DISCUSSIONS AT HEALTHY BUILDINGS 2015

Ibbotson Family 500X500

2019 - Healthy Buildings Day

"Just Like Living Outside" by Family Ibbotson Testimonial

Sergio Altomonte, Marilyne Andersen And Signe Sand On Quality (New)

2021 - Compass Stage

Quality

Sergio Altomonte, Marilyne Andersen and Signe Sand on Quality

Screenshot 20221116 140530

2019 - Daylight Symposium

"Designing with daylight" by Paula Esquivias

Daylight 2011 Christophreinhart

2011 - Daylight Symposium

DAYLIGHTING DASHBOARDS – FROM EVALUATING PERFORMANCE TO SUGGESTING NEW FORMS by Christoph Reinhart

Timothy Brown On Light And Health (New)

2021 - Daylight Symposium

Light & Health

Timothy Brown on Light and Health

Screenshot 20221116 153650

2019 - Daylight Symposium

”Experiences Using EN 17037 in Building Project. Software Tools and Metrics” by Max Tillberg

Mecs Green Roof Among Others

2015 - Articles

GLANCING AT A GRASSY GREEN ROOF SIGNIFICANTLY BOOSTS CONCENTRATION

AF11 639 BOS9036

2015 - Articles

3rd VELUX DAYLIGHT ACADEMIC FORUM DEDICATED TO PhD STUDENTS WORKING WITH DAYLIGHT RESEARCH

Didier Mignery 500X500

2019 - Healthy Buildings Day

"Transforming Cities" by Didier Mignery

Daylight 2011 Ulrikebrandi

2011 - Daylight Symposium

A LACK OF DAYLIGHT CULTURE by Ulrike Brandi

Jakubiec 640 Snapshot

2015 - Articles

THE USE OF VISUAL COMFORT METRICS IN THE DESIGN OF DAYLIT SPACES

Daylight 2011 Russellfoster

2011 - Daylight Symposium

BODY CLOCKS, LIGHT, SLEEP AND HEALTH by Russell Foster

Screenshot 20221116 144058

2017 - Daylight Symposium

“Light in the public realm” by James Carpenter

Screenshot 20221116 140958

2017 - Daylight Symposium

"Temporal variability on discomfort glare from daylight" by Michael Kent

Daylight 2011 Myriamaries&Laurenszonnefeldt

2011 - Daylight Symposium

DAYLIGHT DYNAMICS WITH REGARD TO HUMAN NEEDS by Myriam Aries and Laurens Zonneveldt

Ingrid Reumert 500X500

2019 - Healthy Buildings Day

"Transforming Cities" by Ingrid Reumert

Priji Balakrishnan Coverimage E1574428596135

2019 - Articles

MEASURING AND MODELLING EQUATORIAL LIGHT

Daylight 2009 Keesduijvestein

2009 - Daylight Symposium

SUSTAINABLE BUILDING DESIGN IN RELATION TO DAYLIGHTING by Kees Duijvestein

Nicole Porter On Pandemics (New)

2021 - Daylight Symposium

Pandemics

Nicole Porter on Pandemics

Natalie Mossin On Daylight Education

2021 - Daylight Symposium

Daylight Education

Natalie Mossin on Daylight Education

Joerg Lonkwitz On Daylight In Architecture (Asia)

2021 - Daylight Symposium

Daylight in Architecture

Joerg Lonkwitz on Daylight in Architecture (Asia)

2015 - Articles

Evaluation Methods for Assessing Daylight Quality in Architecture

Timothy Brown, Manuel Spitschan, Yvonne De Kort And Andrew Bissell On Light And Health (New)

2021 - Daylight Symposium

Light & Health

Timothy Brown, Manuel Spitschan, Yvonne de Kort and Andrew Bissell on Light and Health

Francisca Rodriguez On Contact To The Outdoors

2021 - Daylight Symposium

Contact to the Outdoors

Francisca Rodriguez on Contact to the Outdoors

Marilyne Andersen On Quality

2021 - Compass Stage

Affordability

How much does daylight matter? - With Marilyne Andersen

Steve Fotios On Daylight Education

2021 - Daylight Symposium

Daylight Education

Steve Fotios on Daylight Education

Kevin Van Den Wymelenberg, Nicole Porter, Ayesha Batool, Natalia Vasquez, Till R

2021 - Compass Stage

Pandemics

Kevin Van Den Wymelenberg, Nicole Porter, Ayesha Batool, Natalia Giraldo Vasquez, Till Roenneberg - Pandemics

Lone Wiggers Web

2017 - Articles

LONE WIGGERS: LIVE KEYNOTE FROM THE 7th VELUX DAYLIGHT SYMPOSIUM

Tina Mayn, Velux Innovation (1080P).00 06 19 12.Still003

2021 - Compass Stage

VELUX

David Briggs, Welcome

Blog Ways Into The Light

2017 - Articles

WAYS INTO THE LIGHT

Screenshot 20221116 150218

2019 - Daylight Symposium

"The Value of Daylight in Office Buildings" by Christoph Reinhart

Screenshot 20221116 144510

2019 - Daylight Symposium

“Happy people in healthy architecture” by Lone Wiggers

Andrew Bissell On Light And Health (New)

2021 - Daylight Symposium

Light & Health

Andrew Bissell on Light and Health

Nadim Stub, Anita Derjanez And Frederik Noltenius On Health (New)

2021 - Compass Stage

Health

Nadim Stub, Anita Derjanez and Frederik Noltenius on Health

Sinus Lynge On Communities
Communities

How do we build homes within planetary boundaries? | Sinus Lynge

Daylight 2011 Deanhawkes

2011 - Daylight Symposium

THE MEASURABLE AND THE UNMEASURABLE by Dean Hawkes

Academic Forum Bw

2019 - Articles

5th VELUX DAYLIGHT ACADEMIC FORUM

Poul Høilund On Flexible

2021 - Compass Stage

Pecha KuchaFlexible

Poul Høilund on Flexible | Pecha Kucha

Claire Kimball Johnson And Lærke Hein On Affordability

2021 - Compass Stage

Affordability

Claire Kimball Johnson and Lærke Hein on Affordability

Screenshot 20221116 143957

2017 - Daylight Symposium

“Twenty-five years of circadian living: a case study” by Dean Hawkes

Marcus Fairs, Chris Trott, Cassie Sutherland And Cécile Brisac On Community

2021 - Compass Stage

Communities

Marcus Fairs, Chris Trott, Cassie Sutherland and Cécile Brisac on Community

Hero Koen Steemers 640X425

2019 - Articles

8th VELUX DAYLIGHT SYMPOSIUM IN PARIS 9 OCTOBER 2019

Daylight 2011 Judithheerwagen

2011 - Daylight Symposium

THE EXPERIENCE OF DAYLIGHT by Judith Heerwagen

Screenshot 20221115 130208

2013 - Daylight Symposium

5th VELUX Daylight Symposium 2013

F. Forsberg, N. H. Langkjær, L. B. Vieweg, S. Wasilewski And A. Jakubiec On Comp

2021 - Daylight Symposium

Computational Design

Franz Forsberg, Nicolaj Hostrup Langkjær, Love Berger-Vieweg, Stephen Wasilewski and Alstan Jakubiec on Computational Design

Screenshot 20221116 160638

2019 - Daylight Symposium

"Immersive Views Outdoors to Assess the Mediating Effect" by Francisca Rodriguez

Daylight 2009 Wilfriedpohl

2009 - Daylight Symposium

ENERGY EFFICIENT DAYLIGHT SOLUTIONS, TRENDS AND CHANCES by Wilfried Pohl

BOS9747

2015 - Articles

2 INSIGHTFUL DAYS AT THE 6TH VELUX DAYLIGHT SYMPOSIUM IN LONDON

Mette Tony On Quality

2021 - Compass Stage

Quality

Mette Tony on Quality

Screenshot 20221116 135913

2017 - Daylight Symposium

"Daylight at masterplan stage" by Paula Longato and Alexander Rotsch

2015 - Articles

Light Cultures – New Technologies, Aesthetics, and Climate Policies

Screenshot 20221116 142822

2017 - Daylight Symposium

“Daylighting the millennials” by Christoph Reinhart

Augustesen 01 (1)

2015 - Articles

ARCHITECTURE FOR THE SENSES

Screenshot 20221116 160316

2019 - Daylight Symposium

"Crowd-based Illuminance Maps: Comparing Daylight Perception" by Muhammad Hegazy

Screenshot 20221115 161605

2015 - Daylight Symposium

Paul Bogard at the 6th VELUX Daylight Symposium

Screenshot 20221115 162444

2015 - Daylight Symposium

Christoph Reinhart at the 6th VELUX Daylight Symposium

2015 - Articles

SOLAR ECLIPSE, SUPERMOON AND SPRING EQUINOX ON 20 MARCH 2015

Carlo Lukassen 01 640

2015 - Articles

INSPIRING STORY TELLERS AND EXPLORERS CONNECT OUR WORLD

Group SHOW UP With Subs

2023 - Articles

Hackathon

ShowUp - Build for Life Hackathon 2023

2015 - Articles

PhD Scholarship on Visual Comfort in Green Buildings in Subtropical Climates

Daylight 2011 Miriammunch

2011 - Daylight Symposium

DAYLIGHT – VISUAL COMFORT AND NON-VISUAL FUNCTIONS by Mirjam Münch

Screenshot 20221116 150434

2019 - Daylight Symposium

"Creating Architecture with Daylight" by Steffen Vogt

Franz Forsberg On Computational Design (New)

2021 - Daylight Symposium

Computational Design

Franz Forsberg on Computational Design

Daylight 2007 Henrikwannjensen

2007 - Daylight Symposium

STATE-OF-THE-ART IN COMPUTER SIMULATED DAYLIGHTING by Henrik Wann Jensen

Giulio Camiz 500X500

2019 - Healthy Buildings Day

"Rethink Daylight" by Giulio Camiz

C24D0450

2021 - Daylight Symposium

Computational Design

Mikkel Esrup Steenberg on Computational Design

Rick Joy On Daylight In Architecture (America)

2021 - Daylight Symposium

Daylight in Architecture

Rick Joy on Daylight in Architecture (America)

Louis Becker On Daylight In Architecture (Europe) (New)

2021 - Daylight Symposium

Daylight in Architecture

Louis Becker on Daylight in Architecture (Europe)

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2019 - Daylight Symposium

“The Multi-Layer City, Reinventing Paris” by Rasmus Astrup & Frederic Chartier

2015 - Articles

A CIBSE Daylight Group event: Assessing new metrics for daylight prediction

Olafur Eliasson

2015 - Articles

OLAFUR ELIASSON ON THE NATURAL LIGHT WINNING DESIGN

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2019 - Daylight Symposium

"Environmental Surfing for Health, Productivity and a Resilient Future" by Vivian Loftness

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